Seeing the coffee flower garden blossoming in white, Mr. Tran Van My, who put his enthusiasm into taking care of one hectare of coffee according to the instruction process to achieve the expected result, is overflowing with joy hard to describe. This is the model “drip irrigation technology combined with water fertilization” for coffee trees that Dak Lak Department of Agriculture and Rural Development in coordination with the People’s Committee of Buon Ma Thuot city has deployed since 2013 to present at the coffee sample field Village 3, Hoa Thuan Commune, Buon Ma Thuot City, Dak Lak Province. This model, for the first time, officially controls the application of drip irrigation to stimulate flowering under the supervision of managers and technical experts. The bloom results of this coffee garden will open up a viewpoint of Israel’s drip irrigation technology for coffee production development in Dak Lak in particular and Vietnam in general.
With this technology, water before leading to the coffee plant has been “passed” through a “central system” with the main components including electric pumps, water flow meters, pressure gauges, filters. discs, fertilizer filling systems, exhaust valves and complete central control mounting accessories. Water flow meter is used to accurately monitor the amount of irrigation water, check the flow of the pump; water pressure gauges are responsible for checking the operation of the pump, the cleanliness of the filter core and water leakage in the pipeline; the filter disc is responsible for removing residue, creating a stable water flow, relatively quality water before supplying to coffee; Air release valve for the purpose of releasing air pockets that form during irrigation generated by pump operation, terrain slope or irrigating water pipes having a uniform slope but too long ( 500m). The release of these airbags helps the system after starting to achieve pressure uniformity in the shortest time, preventing pressure differences caused by vacuum created in the pipeline affecting speed. movement of water currents. The magnifier is the main feeding device and tube, delivering nutrition directly to the root zone of the plant through a drip tape. The system of main and branch pipes, when installed, is buried 30cm to 50cm deep. Using a drip wire with a thickness of 0.38mm, operating pressure from 0.4 bar to 1.8 bar, which means fluctuating in the height from 4m to 18m, the flow of each drip tip is still the same (1.6 liters of water /hours). The drip piping system is arranged parallel to the two sides of the coffee root, about 70 cm from the root, buried about 5-7 cm from the ground; Thus, each coffee stump carries 12 dripping points (50 cm / 1 point apart). The advantage of the drip irrigation technology is to bring water and nutrients directly to the active root zone of the coffee plant, through the self-compensating water-pressure drip tip embedded in the PE pipe by the factory. For water and nutrition to be provided adequately and evenly to all coffee trees in the garden, helping to manage irrigation water and nutrition for coffee trees in the most effective way, especially for proper water regulation. physiology of coffee flowering (is the basis of determining productivity, quality and sustainability of coffee gardens). This irrigation method is adapted to different conditions, so it can be widely used, especially for coffee trees in Dak Lak, a less flat land, a dry season lasts up to 6 months, always scarce water. .
Based on the amount of water needed to irrigate the coffee blossoming process that scientists have calculated on the basis of the physiology of the coffee plant during the flower bud differentiation period, Mr. My has irrigated the blooming into 2 the first time, the watering time is 15 hours, with the amount of water per 1 stem is 288 liters (12 drippers / coffee stub * 1.6 liters of water / drip tip / hour * 15 hours), after 9 days ( from the first watering phase) all buds have differentiated germination (reaching 70-80% of the amount of flower / crop). Fifteen days after the first wave, Mr. My watered the second round, the time was 7 hours with 134 liters of water / root (7 hours * 1.6 liters of water / hour * 12 drippers) had bloomed all different flower buds. rest. Compared to the previous sprinkler irrigation, the amount of irrigation water saved from 200-300 liters / root / time (because in the past, each overflow stimulated the blooming of coffee with water from 600-700 liters / root.
Mr. Tran Van My said, in order to be effective for the process of mass flowering of the whole coffee garden, before that, it is necessary to comply with the technique of “watering and gathering roots” by drip technology combined with fertilizing water. follow the instruction. The purpose of rooting is to concentrate the roots in the specified soil, by maintaining constant humidity and air in the wet area along the roots of the coffee tree, continuous wet strip will produce positive root mass of coffee. thereby preventing the development of soil salinity, improving the efficiency of water and nutrient uptake, developing optimal soil moisture and ventilation, saving plants’ energy. So although, since the end of 2013, the model of “drip irrigation” at Anh My coffee garden has been deployed and assembled as planned, but until early 2015, the technique of “watering the flowers” is applied after the chain. the day of the drip irrigation process combined with fertilizing with water to collect roots. Applying Israel’s drip irrigation technology on a large area will save a large amount of water, which will limit water shortages on other crop areas of the Central Highlands during the dry season.
For Dak Lak, since 2011, the technology of drip irrigation combined with water fertilization for coffee plants has assessed high economic efficiency. However, the drip irrigation for blooming coffee flowers is still a subject of debate among experts until today, when the author and a number of experts and technicians directly guide and follow up, checking and realizing the model of application of drip irrigation technology from 2013 until now has the most practical answer. The system “drip irrigation combined with fertilizing through water” of Netafim – Israel is now improved compared to previous years such as: reducing the amount of water from the output in one hour of irrigation to suit the soil texture and love bridge of the coffee tree; overcome the phenomenon of the underground pipe system being bitten by insects; regulating the distance between the drip tip on the dropper is reasonable, the price is more suitable …. That creates conditions for producers to access drip irrigation technology more and more easily. According to Mr. Vu Kien Trung, Director of Khang Thinh Irrigation Technology Joint Stock Company, representative of Netafim Group (Israel) in Vietnam, the total investment cost for 01 hectare of drip irrigation combined with water fertilization for tomato current Israeli technology coffee is about 50 million VND / ha (some technical equipment can be replaced by high quality Vietnamese products); Minimum shelf life is 10 years.
Practical effect Mr. My noted when applying this technology is that the system can operate regularly; reducing chemical leaching into the environment; limit soil erosion; make soil moisture evenly and consistently at the optimum level for coffee plants; make the fresh root area porous, increase the respiration capacity of the roots, increase the efficiency of absorption of water and nutrients of the plant, strongly develop the positive root mass; saving water for irrigation should be able to regulate the underground water of the drilled well, serving the coffee garden for adequate irrigation during the dry season; Reduce 7 million VND of fertilizer per hectare compared to previous years, reduce a part of pesticides because coffee grows well, resist some pests and diseases, reduce up to 50% of labor force ( fertilizing, pulling watering pipes, spraying pesticides, weeding …), protecting the environment and the environment; special protection of community health. Accordingly, the produced coffee products will be of better quality, contributing to meeting the demand for VietGAP certification as well as Global GAP, suitable for coffee processing technology to export coffee to developed countries. Therefore, the application of drip irrigation technology to coffee will protect Vietnam’s coffee brand, meet the quality demand for some “fastidious” countries in the world, contributing to economic growth. economic country ..
Source: Dak Lak Department of Agriculture and Rural Development